Tulostoma floridanum Lloyd
Source: Index Fungorum
Family: Agaricaceae
Tulostoma floridanum image
Wright J.E. 1987. Bibliotheca Mycologia 113: 117.

Tulostoma floridanum Lloyd (Fig. 62; Pls. XII: 3-5; XLI: 6) - Lloyd, The Tylostomeae, p. 18, tab. 80, figs. 1-2. 1906.

Etym.: the name refers to the locality of the holotype, in Florida, USA.

Spore-sac small, up to 8 mm diam. Exoperidium hyphal, formed by a thin hyphal layer mixed with sand grains and soit, persisting at the base and in some portions of the endoperidium. Endoperidium whitish, cinereous or, more generally cupreous, clay colour to light ferrugineous, covered by dark soil grains that persist for some time. Mouth circular to subtubular, slightly projecting. Socket separated from stem, membrane with short and thick scales. Gleba light ochraceous. Stem thin, up to 40 x 1-1.5 mm, light brown to reddish brown, fibrillose, contorted, straight, ending basally in a small mycelial bulb.

Endoperidium formed by hyphae similar to those of the capillitium but with scant or solid lumen, much anastomosed and with numerous coloured septa. Spores globose, prominent and irregularly echinulate under L.M., the spines broad-based, 4.6-6.4 µm diam. Under SEM the ornamentation appears to be formed by large conic spines formed by 8-12 applanate columns, sometimes transversely striate (resembling somewhat the peristome teeth of some mosses), fused at the apex. Capillitium subhyaline to slightly yellowish, scantily branched, septate; threads thick-walled with visible to lacunar lumen, inner wall wavy, slightly swollen at the uncoloured septa; common septa are also observed; 2.6-6.1 µm diam. Hyphae of the mycelial bulb fasciculate, afibulate, 4.6-9.7 µm diam.

Habitat: among litter in wooded or otherwise sites with vegetation. Distribution: North America: it seems restricted to the Caribbean area, particularly SE United States.

Holotype: United States, Florida, New Smyrna, leg. Mrs. Sams (Herb. Lloyd n° 13.633, BPI!).

Illustration: Lloyd (op.cit.).