Tulostoma utahense J.E. Wright
Source: Index Fungorum
Family: Agaricaceae
Tulostoma utahense image
Scott T. Bates  
Wright J.E. 1987. Bibliotheca Mycologia 113: 204.

Tulostoma utahense J.E.Wright n. sp. (Fig. 146; Pls. XI:3;XXXIV:3). Etym.: The name refers to the type locality, in the state of Utah, United States.

Latin diagnosis: Peridio usque ad 12 mm diam; globoso vel globoso - depresso. Exoperidio membranaceo strato hyphale tenue denseque exornato, filis crassis intermixtus, interdum granulis arenosis obtectus, persistents inter filis in endoperidium. Endoperidio cinereo, in aetate leviter fulvello, non laevis. Ore rotundato, applanato, labio pallido. Collo conspicuo, profundo, plus minusve stipite separato, membrana lacerata, majuscula. Gleba ochraceo ferruginea. Stipite albello, fragile, usque ad 30 x 3 mm, fibroso, ad basim structura volviforme exornato. Filis exoperidii crassetunicatis, lumen amplissimum,hyphis centralis usque ad 12 µm diam, parietes usque 3 µm diam, hyphis lateralis 3.6-7.2 µm diam. Sporis irregulariter verrucosis vel asperulatis sub microscopio optico, globosis vel subglobosis, brunneis, hyalinis, episporio crasso, 6.6-8.4 - (9.8) µm diam., grosse gutt ulatis. Cum microscopio electronico irregulariter grosse verrucosis, interdum anastomosantibus. Capillitio subhyalino, ramificato, septato; hyphis crassetunicatis, lumen parvumvelnullum, 2.6-6 µm diam, septis plus minusve incrassatis. subhyalinis disiunctis, rotundatis.

Spore-sac up to 12 mm diam, globose to globose-depressed. Exoperidium with a membranous aspect, formed by a thin but firm hyphal layer intermixed with thick mycelial chords (non rhizomorphic), in some specimens covered with sand grains, which confers it a granular aspect, the threads of the endoperidium persisting in parts. Endoperidium dark to light grey in all specimens, when weathered some exhibit yellowish hues, not completely smooth. Mouth circular, not projecting, with a lighter coloured lip or rim. Socket conspicuous, deep, more or less separated from the stem, with a lacerated membrane which may attain a rather large size. Gleba ochraceous ferrugineous. Stem almost white, very fragile and up to 30 x 3 mm, fibrous (when peeled?), basally ending in an indistinct volviform structure.

Threads on the endoperidium thick-walled, visible lumen; the cells of the central chord 12-24 µm diam, with walls up to 3 µm thick, the lateral ones 3.6-7.2 µm diam. Spores irregularly verrucose to asperulate when observed under L.M., globose to subglobose, light brown, transparent, with a thick episporium; 6.6-8.4-(9.8) µm diam, most with a large central guttula; under SEM, the ornamentation appears formed by large, irregular verrucae, somewhat anastomosed, sometimes by the apices, intermixed with others almost cylindric. Capillitium subhyaline, branched, septate; threads thick-walled, lumen scant to solid, 2.6-6 µm diam, more or less swollen at the almost colourless, disjointable, blunt-ended septa.

Habitat: sandy soils in arid regions.

Distribution: North America: SW United States.

Holotype: United States, Utah, Salt Lake City, beaches N of City Creek, leg. A. 0. Garrett 2585, III.1920 (NY!).

Illustration: see above.