Wright J.E. 1987. Bibliotheca Mycologia 113: 188.
Tulostoma simulans Lloyd. (Fig. 136; Pls. VIII: 1,4;L:3) - The Tylostomeae, p. 18, pl. 79, figs. 2-3. 1906.
Etym.: The name refers to the fungus being camouflaged (thus simulating) as another species.
Spore-sac up to 12 mm diam, generally globose and rather small for the general size of the plant. Exoperidium membranous, very thin, peeling off in small portions, scale-wise, surface slightly granulose due to adhered soil particles and debris. Endoperidium not white but some hue of yellowish pink, cupreous or dark ochraceous, fragile. Mouth circular, slightly projecting, with a dark cinereous peristome. Socket slightly separated from the stem, membrane entire. Gleba ochraceous ferrugineous. Stem slightly coloured, up to 35 x 2 mm, the cortex peeling off thinly, somewhat darker, longitudinally striate (when decorticated) in the upper third.
Spores verrucose under L.M., coloured, 4-5.4 Âµm diam; under SEM the ornamentation appears as appressed, conic verrucae formed by fused columns. Capillitium subhyaline, branched, septate; threads thick-walled, swollen at the disjointable, uncoloured septa; 2.6-4.1 Âµm diam.
Habitat: forest soil, among litter, sometimes in dunicolous tree nurseries.
Distribution: North America: United States. South America: Argentina. Australasia: Australia, New Zealand. Europe: Spain. Africa: South Africa. Asia: U.S.S.R.: Kazakhskaia SSR. In all except the first, probably introduced.
Holotype: United States, Texas, Denton, leg. Long (Herb. Lloyd no 13.636, BPI!).
Illustration: Lloyd (op. cit.); A. H. Smith (1951: P1. 39, figs.1-2).