Tulostoma berkeleyi Lloyd (Fig. 17bis; Pls. XVI: 2; XLIX: 5)
The Tylostomeae, p. 25, tab. 84, figs. 8-9. 1906.
Etym.: dedicated to the British mycologist, Rev. Miles J. Berkeley.
Spore-sac globose, up to 14 mm diam, averaging 10 mm, easily separable from the stem. Exoperidium hyphal, formed by a thick layer of hyphae intermixed with sand grains, at times appearing almost submembranaceous, generally persisting for some time on portion of the endoperidium. Endoperidium ochraceous or, more commonly light grey to dark silver grey, covered by a sort ofreticulum, not smooth, frequently with dark grains, or with some portions very granulose or areolate. Mouth fibrillose, soon fimbriate, slightly mammose, not denticulate or only slightly so. Socket more or less conspicuous, not separated from stem, with an even membrane, which may become denticulate or squamous, and then the scales rather large, irregular, reddish brown. Gleba ochraceous ferrugineous. Stem up to 30 x 2.5 mm, light brown to reddish brown, substraight, longitudinally striate (especially visible in upper third), rugose-fibrillose; some specimens appear somewhat squamulose in this regard, but it is not truly squamose; the cortex wears off leaving a whitish surface; very fragile and easily broken, ending basally in a mycelial bulb.
Endoperidium formed by much septate hyphae, which are thick-walled and very contorted; septa sometimes coloured. Spores coloured, subglobose to elliptic, finely but distintcly echinulate under L.M., the ornamentation appressed and the spines often anastomosed forming ribs, yellowish, episporium smooth, (3.8)-5.3-5.7-(6.7) Âµm diam, most 4.8-5 Âµm.; under SEM the ornamentation appears as low, blunt, much anastomosed warts forming crests. Capillitium subhyaline to yellowish, branched and septate, 2.4-8.7 Âµm diam., threads with thick walls and lumen visible to solid, slightly swollen at the coloured septa.
Habitat: sandy soil, gregarious, generally abundant, frequently mixed with other species.
Distribution: North America: E and SE United States and some of the Caribbean Islands.
Holotype: United States, Alabama, Lee County, Auburn, leg. Earle & Baker, XI.1897 (Herb. Lloyd nÂ° 4471, BPI!; isotypes? FH).