Long, W.H. & Ahmad, S. 1947. The genus Tylostoma in India. Farlowia 3: 225-267.
Tylostoma membranaceum sp. nov. Figure 17
Latin diagnosis: Sporocarpo globoso usque depresso-globoso, 8-16 mm. alto, 10-22 mm. lato. Exoperidio membranaceo, albicante. Ore subfibrllloso vel nudo. Stipite 1-7-4 cm- alto, 3-6 mm, crasso, brunneo, squamuloso, Sporis subglobosis, 4.5-5.5 u. Episporio levi.
Sporophore having sporocarp, stipe and bulbous radicating base. Sporocarp globose to depressed-globose, 8-16 mm. high by 10-22 mm. wide, firmly attached to stem apex. Peridial sheath covered with dry clay therefore not seen. Exoperidium membranous, covered with dried clay, deciduous in age. Endoperidium membranous, white to pinkish buff. Mouth subfibrillose surrounded by a zone of fibrils which is lost in age, fibrils scanty or even undeveloped in some specimens, small. Collar inconspicuous, 1-2 mm. from stem apex. Stipe even, terete, 1.7-4 cm. long by 3-6 mm. thick, pecan brown to walnut brown, scaly, with small ascending scales. Base bulbous, 6-10 mm. in diameter of hyphae and clay. Radicating base present or none. Gleba ferruginous. Capillitium hyaline. Spores globose to subglobose, 4.5-5.5 Âµm. in diameter. Epispore smooth.
Habitat: Gregarious among grass in clay soil.
Distribution: Rohtak District, Rohtak, S. Ahmad, September 26, 1945, 8 plants Herb. Ahmad no. 1475, type, 3 of these now in Herb. Long no. 11507.
Tulostoma membranaceum Long & Ahmad (Fig. 96) - Farlowia 3: 251-252, fig. 17. 1947.
Etym : The name refers to the membranaceous nature of the exoperidium.
Spore-sac up to 15 mm diam, depressed-globose, large compared with the size of the stem. Exoperidium membranous, persistent. Endoperidium finally smooth, cinereous pinkish-white, with a metallic or copper-like - brilliancy. Mouth indefinite, apparently fibrillose. Socket conspicuous, separated from stem, membrane lacerate to dentate. Gleba ochraceous. Stem short, up to 15 x 4 mm, brown (from wood-colour to reddish brown), decorticating in long thin threads, as if shredded.
Endoperidium formed by thin-walled hyphae with coloured and plane septa, not distinctly swollen. Spores slightly coloured, yellowish, small, elliptic, smooth under L.M., apiculate and guttulate, some pip-shaped or subglobose; 3-3.5 x 4.3-4.7 Âµm; under SEM the wall is also completely smooth. Capillitium slightly coloured, scantily branched, septate; threads thick-walled with a visible and wavy lumen, or all the thread wavy, not distinctly swollen at the scant, disjointable septa; 4-12 Âµm diam.
Habitat: sandy soil in arid sites.
Distribution: Asia: India; North America: United States (doubtful). Holotype: India: Rohtak, leg. S. Ahmad nÂ° 1475, 26.IX.1945 (Herb. Long 11.107, BPI!).